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CYPE 3D is an agile and efficient program created for the analysis and design of three-dimensional structures with elements made of concrete, steel, composite concrete and steel, aluminium, timber, or any other material, and includes the sizing of connections (welded and bolted connections of rolled and welded steel I sections and hollow structural sections) and their foundations with baseplates, footings, pile caps, and strap and tie beams.
CYPE 3D analyses any type of structure with bars (linear elements) made of concrete, steel, composite concrete and steel, aluminium, timber, or any other material, and includes the design of connections (welded and bolted connections of rolled and welded steel I sections and hollow structural sections) and their foundations with baseplates, footings, pile caps, strap and tie beams. Timber, steel or aluminium bars and reinforced concrete columns and beams can be designed by the program. Composite concrete and steel columns can be checked by the program.Operating as an independent program, CYPE 3D also allows the discretisation of structures using shells (flat two-dimensional elements of constant thickness whose perimeter is defined by a polygon) to analyse their forces and stresses.It analyses, designs and checks the fire resistance of timber sections; it checks the fire resistance of steel sections and designs the protective coating for steel sections. It carries out the seismic analysis of the structure. For wind and seismic loads, it considers second-order (P-delta) effects.CYPE 3D also works as an independent program, as well as within CYPECAD as an integrated 3D structure.
Different limit states can be configured for each material.The program also allows users to view and print a report with the project situations, with and without seismic loads, showing the γ partial safety coefficients (load amplification factors) and the ψ combination coefficients for each type of load (nature).Loadcases and loadcase combinations
CYPE 3D automatically generates the self-weight of the entered bars that will form a self-weight loadcase. An indefinite number of additional loadcases of the same or different nature (self-weight, live load, wind, seismic or snow) can be added.Users can define any number of simple loadcases and decide whether to combine them in a compatible, incompatible or simultaneous way. The program will automatically generate the combination of these loadcases according to the indicated conditions.For example, the program automatically generates the loadcase combination corresponding to a load situation consisting of a generic overload and the performance of a load trolley with different positions. The trolley positions are incompatible with each other, but each of them is compatible with the generic overload and with the other loadcases of different nature.The generated loadcase combination among the loadcases of the same nature can be viewed. This way, users can check whether or not the indicated conditions are correct.Multiple load types
The program supports multiple types of loads such as point load, uniform load, strip load, left and right triangular load, trapezoidal load, surface with height variation, increase in uniform and variable temperature, applied moment, etc. The loads can be introduced on nodes and bars.Surface loads are introduced on panels that have been geometrically defined by the user by means of a closed polygon. These loads can be applied on the entire surface of the panel or on polygonal surfaces contained in the panel. Users also indicate the direction of the unidirectional distribution of the loads introduced on the panel, which must be parallel to one of the sides of the panel.The distribution of all the loads applied on the panel is isostatic and is carried out on the bars contained in the panel that are not parallel to the distribution direction. For loads defined on the surface of the panel, the distribution will only affect those bars that are closest to the defined surface.In the 3D structures integrated into CYPECAD, surface loads can also be defined in the same way as in CYPE 3D. More detailed information can be found in the following videos:
It is possible to define prescribed displacements in the fixities and supports and prescribed rotations in the fixities. These displacements and rotations will cause forces in the bars so when they are defined, their effects must be assigned to a loadcase.
The node type selection is very complete. Both internal and external fixities can be defined. External fixities allow nodes to be defined as pinned, fixed or partially fixed, elastic supports (springs), supports with free displacement according to a plane or straight line to be defined, etc.Ties can be defined between nodes. These node ties are used to indicate that two or more nodes have equal displacements in all the loadcases. This matching of displacements can be established in one, two or three directions in accordance with the global X, Y and Z axes. The number corresponding to each group or set of nodes whose displacements are linked is shown on screen.It should be noted that for two or more nodes to have equal displacements between them, there must be some element or constructive arrangement in the structure that effectively implements the loadcase of equal displacements.Ties cannot be assigned to nodes that are part of the edges of braced frames when the tied displacement is projected onto the plane of the braced frame.
CYPE 3D allows users to enter bars made of concrete, steel, composite concrete and steel, aluminium, timber or any other material.The program designs the section reachingthe optimum size for steel, aluminium, timber or concrete bars (if their structural type has been defined as a column or beam).Composite concrete and steel bars can be defined if they have been entered as column-type structural elements and, although they are not designed automatically, they are checked by the program with the properties indicated by the user.Entering beam and column concepts in CYPE 3D implies characterising the bars in the model as belonging to a structural element type. As of version 2016.a in CYPE 3D, bars are assigned to one of the following four types of structural elements:
Buckling and lateral buckling
CYPE 3D allows users to introduce the ß buckling coefficients or buckling length, the moment coefficient and the C1 coefficient of the lateral buckling critical moment formulation (if defined by the selected code) of each bar. Each code normally provides values for these coefficients associated with different bending moment distributions between bracing points.The program also automatically calculates the buckling length of the bars according to an approximate method, based on commonly accepted formulas, that requires users to classify the structure as a sway frame or a non-sway frame. Users can also activate the lateral buckling check for any bar.Deflection limitation
The program allows users to limit the deflection of the bars so that the design of the sections takes into account the imposed restriction (as well as the stress, slenderness, buckling, etc). Users may limit the maximum and relative deflection, both for their absolute and relative values to the length between ends and inflection points of the deformed shape. The deflection may be defined as secant or tangent at one of its ends. An element composed of various aligned bars can also be defined so that the program checks its deflection as if it were a single bar. The dialogue boxes limiting the deflection of the bars have help captions available that perfectly define the different types of deflection that users may limit and the length that serves as a reference for the relative deflection.Adjustments, displacements and rotations
When introducing bars, it is possible to carry out adjustments, displacements and rotations with respect to their introduction axis. The eccentricity produced by these adjustments and displacements is taken into account in the analysis, so the program allows users to consider the true relative position between bars.Fixity coefficients and rotational stiffnesses
The program allows XY and XZ fixity coefficients or rotational stiffnesses to be assigned to the ends of elements (bars or groups of aligned bars forming an element) in these planes. Defining the rotational stiffnesses allows connections that require the consideration of their stiffnesses to rotate, such as bolted connections, to be modelled.For each designed bolted connection, the program also analyses (for all the acting force combinations) the rotational stiffness of each element fixed to the connection and selects a rotational stiffness value for each element end, which will be that proposed by the user for re-analysing the structure. Once the analysis has concluded, the program provides a warning if the rotational stiffness entered by the user for the elements fixed to the bolted connections differs by more than 20% from that proposed by the program or if it has not been defined.CYPE 3D allows users to automatically assign the rotational stiffnesses proposed by the program as well as revise any they wish to check in order to decide which rotational stiffnesses are to be adopted.
CYPE 3D allows users to define shell elements. Shells are flat two-dimensional elements with constant thickness and without openings, whose perimeter is defined by a polygon.For analysis purposes, shells are introduced in the global stiffness matrix of the structure using a three-dimensional finite element model composed of six-node (quadratic) triangular flat shells. The type of element used is based on the overlap of two locally decoupled elements: one provides the axial stiffness (membrane forces) and the other the bending stiffness (panel forces).The following properties can be defined for each shell:
In order to be able to use shells in CYPE 3D, the user license must have the permits required for the CYPE 3D program.
CYPE 3D allows the main specifications and requirements linked to the three most common seismic-resistant systems defined in the American standard AISC 341-10 (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings) to be included in the design of rolled and reinforced steel structural elements: moment-resistant frames, frames with concentric bracing and frames with eccentric bracing.CYPE 3D also analyses, designs and checks Prequalified Connections according to ANSI/AISC 358-10 (Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications) and ANSI/AISC 341-10.
Using the new Fire resistance check module, CYPECAD and CYPE 3D carry out the following:
The Joints modules designed by CYPE (Joints I. Welded. Warehouses with rolled and welded steel I sections, Joints II. Bolted. Warehouses with rolled and welded steel I sections, Joints III. Welded. Building frames with rolled and welded steel I sections, Joints IV. Bolted. Building frames with rolled and welded steel I sections, and Joints V. Flat trusses with hollow structural sections) can be used in both CYPECAD and CYPE 3D (including the Integrated 3D structures of CYPECAD).The type of joints resolved in the Joints I, Joints II and Joints V modules are more applicable to warehouses designed in CYPE 3D and in Integrated 3D structures of CYPECAD, whilst the joints designed by the Joints III and Joints IV modules have a wider field of application in building structures formed by frames that are designed in CYPECAD. Nonetheless, each joint designed by any of the indicated modules is resolved in the same manner regardless of the program used. Furthermore, the Joints I, Joints II, Joints III and Joints IV modules contain several types of joints common to both modules.
CYPE 3D has several modules that allow baseplates to be edited, checked and designed: the Baseplates module and the Joints I, Joints II, Joints III and Joints IV modules. The “Baseplates” module resolves baseplates for any steel column layout and the joints modules only resolve welded baseplates of rolled and welded steel I sections.The properties of the designed baseplates are described below.Properties of the baseplates included in CYPE 3D
Baseplate design options
The baseplate design options are configured in the Options dialogue box (Joints menu > Options). Baseplate checks
CYPE 3D carries out the following checks to design baseplates (assuming the rigid plate theory):
CYPE 3D analyses and designs footings and pile caps. Both foundation elements can be isolated or combined, i.e. they may support any number of columns.Footings can be made up of reinforced concrete or mass concrete, with constant or variable depth, and the program can design them to be square, rectangular, eccentric, corner or edge centred. The analysis and design of the footings is part of a CYPE 3D module.Pile caps admit multiple piles. A wide range of types is available. They may hold 1, 2, 3 and 4 piles; linear pile caps and rectangular pile caps for any number of piles (from 3 to 30 per side); pentagonal pile caps for 5 and 6 piles, and hexagonal pile caps for 6 and 7 piles. The analysis and design of the pile caps is part of a CYPE 3D module.Both footings and pile caps can be supported by tie straps and centring beams. The design of strap and tie beams is included in the footings and pile caps module.CYPE 3D allows the balancing type of the ends of centring beams to be chosen by selecting the bearing pressure distribution acting under the footing in response to the soil, in order to analyse the forces on the centring beam and the pressures of the soil.
Data introduction assistant
When a new job is created in CYPE 3D, an assistant is displayed that helps users introduce the general data of the job:
The data of the material introduced in the assistant is the default data that will be assigned to each introduced element. Using the Describe material option in the Bar menu, a material other than the default material can be assigned to any element for the job.All the data introduced in the assistant can be modified once the assistant has closed. These changes can be carried out in the Project menu in the Structure tab and in the Project menu > General data of the Foundations tab. For this reason, the Extruded aluminium sections option has been added to the Project menu so the default data for this material can be modified.IFC file import
CYPE 3D allows for structural analysis models to be imported by means of an IFC file. IFC files that only contain the physical model and not the structural analysis model, do not contain any information that can be read by CYPE 3D.In IFC format files, the structural analysis model is composed of structural type entities, such as nodes, bars, loads, etc. The connections between nodes and bars are also defined explicitly by using fixity conditions. It is similar to the model that users define in CYPE 3D.The entities that CYPE 3D imports from the IFC files are the following:
Entering the bars of the structure
CYPE 3D imports files generated in CAD programs in DWG and DXF format in two and three dimensions. Using these files, the geometry of the structure can be generated automatically (even selecting the elements to be imported classified by layers, entities, colours or line types).Drawing files in DXF or DWG format can also be imported to be used as drawing templates. This way, users can enter the nodes and bars of the structure by snapping the entities and elements of these files in the 2D windows of the program. The import and use of DXF and DWG files are carried out in the same way as in CYPECAD. Users have three buttons available in the toolbar to manage the use of these files:
Other tools are also available to facilitate data introduction: Zoom, Redraw, Orthogonal, Undo, Redo, Repeat last element selection, etc. Object snaps (end, midpoint, perpendicular, nearest and intersection) and tracking (extension, perpendicular, orthogonal) can be carried out on elements of the structure.With the view generation, users can work with 2D and 3D windows (of the entire structure or just a part of it) in a completely interactive way and with total connectivity. Even in the 3D windows that appear on screen, the plane of the 2D window where the cursor is positioned is marked.CYPE 3D also includes tools for automatically generating elements, such as nodes, bars and spatial meshes made up of tetrahedrons. It can also create an unlimited number of parallel frames based on a single frame.Elements are dimensioned without entering coordinates or rigid meshes. When a node or bar is entered, the program assigns them a set of coordinates that depend on the position of the cursor on the reference line or lines that are snapped. Then, users can dimension the nodes or leave the assigned coordinates.Analysis using multiprocessors
CYPECAD and CYPE 3D use the potential of multiprocessors in the analysis of their structures.To access these features, CYPECAD and CYPE 3D have two new common modules that save a substantial amount of analysis time:
The force and deformed shape diagrams and envelopes can be consulted graphically or analytically on screen.The tool for checking bars on screen, (stress, denting, slenderness, deflection, etc.) allows a manual or automatic correction to be carried up to the final design.It generates the drawings of any view of the structure, with all the required information, including elevations with real section dimensions. The drawings can be exported in DXF and DWG format or printed using a printer or plotter.It generates 3D views with perspective or isometric projection displaying the sections with their real size. The 3D views can be printed and exported in DXF, DWG, EMF, BMP and JPG formats. In these views, elements can be displayed with textures resembling the real colours of their materials. Users can represent the 3D view with or without the materials:
Free movement within the structure is permitted with perspective projection.Provides data reports for nodes, bars and loads: reports of displacements, reactions, forces, stresses, deflections, footings, baseplates, etc. in the structure. It includes quantities reports. These reports can be exported in TXT, HTML, PDF and RTF formats. A preliminary view of these reports can also be obtained.
CYPECAD, CYPE 3D and the Integrated 3D structures of CYPECAD generate detailed reports on the ultimate limit state checks of steel and aluminium sections.These reports contain all the checks carried out by the program for designing sections and constitute an important document with which the user can:
The level of detail of these reports also acts as a detailed guide that allows users to familiarise themselves with all the checks to which a section is submitted.
CYPE 3D (without modules)
The basic version of CYPE 3D (without modules) analyses three-dimensional structures of nodes and bars with steel sections, concrete and generic materials, and flat shells. It supports tension-only tie rods and obtains the design and checks of steel section bars. The features of this basic version of CYPE 3D can be increased by adding any of the CYPE 3D modules to the user license.CYPE 2D
CYPE 3D version limited to two-dimensional analyses. This version optionally offers the same modules as CYPE 3D.CYPE 3D student version
CYPE 3D version limited to 50 nodes and 50 bars. No modules can be included and the design and optimisation of sections is limited to jobs with a maximum of 10 nodes and 10 bars.
CYPE 3D modules
In order to access further features offered by the program, there are several modules that can be found on the “CYPE 3D modules” webpage.Interoperability with other systems
CYPECAD, 3D structures integrated into CYPECAD, and CYPE 3D can export the analysed and designed structure to TEKLA Structures. More information on export options can be found at How to export from CYPE to TEKLA® Structures?
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